Ⅰ. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement. (30%, 2 points for each)
1. Which of the following statement about the classification of words is NOT correct? ( )
A. basic word stock and non-basic vocabulary by use frequency
B. content words and functional words by notion
C. native words and borrowed words by origin
D. active words and passive words by formation
2. Content words denote clear notions which including the following except ____________.( )
A. nouns and verbs B. adverbs and adjectives
C. articles and prepositions D. pronouns and numerals
3. English language belongs to the Indo-European language family which is made up of the languages of ____________.( )
A. the Middle East B. the Near East
C. Europe D. India
4. In the word 'reactionist', which are bound morphemes except ____________.( )
A. re B. ion
C. ist D. all of the above
5. Which of the following underlined affixes is NOT inflectional affix? ( )
A. desks B.prewar
C. harder D. goes
6. In the word 'untouchable': 'untouch' is a(n) ____________. ( )
A. root B. stem
C. base D. affix
7. There are three kinds of compounds. The word 'airconditioner' is a(n) ____________. ( )
A. solid compound B. hyphenated compound
C. open compound D. none of the above
8. Which of the following belongs to the word formation of acronym? ( )
A. TOFEL B. BBC
C. WTO D. CEO
9. There are four common types of clipping. The word 'dorm' is a ____________ word.( )
A. front clipping B. back clipping
C. front and back clipping D. phrase clipping
10. Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its meaning. There are four types of motivations. The word 'mouth' in the phrase 'the mouth of the river' is ____________.( )
A. onomatopoeically motivated B. morphologically motivated
C. semantically motivated D. etymologically motivated
11. The four major modes of semantic change are ____________. ( )
A. extension, narrowing, elevation and degradation
B. extension, generalization, elevation and degradation
C. extension, narrowing, specialization and degradation
D. extension, elevation, amelioration and degradation
12. In the following sentence, choose the best to match the meaning of 'womanly'. 'She would know he was alive and she would simply make waitingwomanlyand rational.' ( )
A. sensitively B. patiently
C. jealously D. attractively
13. 'We can hear theirgaylaughter.' What does 'gay' mean in the sentence? ( )
A. cheerful B. homosexual
C. thoughtless D. brilliant
14. The use of one name for that of another associated with it is rhetorically called ____________. ( )
A. synecdoche B. metonymy
C. substitution D. metaphor
15. In terms of ____________ dictionary can be divided into monolingual dictionary, bilingual dictionary and multilingual dictionary. ( )
A. means B. size
C. coverage D. language
Ⅱ. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Write T for true and F for false. (10%, 1 point for each)
16. Lexicology is a branch of linguistics. ( )
17. The word 'Misfortune' is a simple word. ( )
18. It is generally agreed that the written form of a natural language is the written record of the oral form. ( )
19. The morpheme is the smallest functioning unit in the composition of words.( )
20. Suffixes generally change the word meaning but not word class. ( )
21. Words are but symbols, few of which have meaning only when they have acquired reference. ( )
22. Content words have both lexical meaning and grammatical meaning, and lexical meaning in particular.( )
23. Conceptual meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the associative meaning. ( )
24. Vocabulary is the most stable element of a language as it is undergoing constant change both in form and content.( )
25. The structure of an idiom is unchangeable. ( )
Ⅲ. Match the words in Column A with the words of the types of word meaning changes in Column B (8%, 2 points for each)
Column A: words
Column B: types of word meaning changes
journal: daily paper←→periodical
liquor: liquid → alcoholic drink
governor: pilot → head of a state
lust: pleasure → sexual desire
26. ( ) 27. ( ) 28. ( ) 29. ( )
Ⅳ. Complete the following statements with proper expressions according to the textbook. (12%, 2 points for each)
30. There are two types of morphemes: free morphemes and ____________ morphemes.
31. Based on the degree of similarity, homonyms fall into three classes: perfect homonyms, homographs, and ____________.
32. The meaning of a word can be divided into ____________ meaning and lexical meaning.
33.The problem of interrelation of the various meanings of the same word can be dealt with from two different angles: diachronic approach and ____________ approach.
34. ____________ dictionaries involve two language.
35. ____________ are complete sentences which are mainly proverbs and sayings, including colloquialisms and catchphrases.
Ⅴ. Answer the following questions. (20%, 5 points for each)
36. What is a word?
37. How many periods of the English vocabulary development can be divided into? What are they?
38. What is synonym?
39. What are specialized dictionaries?
Ⅵ. Analyze and comment on the given sentence(s). Pick out the idiom in the sentence, and point out its structure, grammatical function and figure of speech. (20%)
40. I am thinking of putting a 'Silence is golden' placard in his office. Nobody can hear themselves think.